July102013
Frane Selak (born in 1929) is often considered the world’s (un)luckiest man. Luck has always been on his side or vice versa for Croatian music teacher who is well known around the world for as many fatal accidents as spectacular escapes. The first of his numerous near-death experiences began on a cold January day in 1962, when Selak was on a train from Sarajevo to Dubrovnik, it suddenly derailed into an icy river, killing 17 passengers. Selak managed to swim back to shore, suffering hypothermia, shock, bruises, and a broken arm. One year later, Selak was on a plane traveling from Zagreb to Rijeka when a door blew off the plane and he was sucked out of the aircraft. A few minutes later the plane crashed; 19 people were killed. But Selak woke up in a hospital - he’d been found in a haystack and had only minor injuries. It was in 1966 that he met with the third misadventure while traveling on a bus that crashed and plunged into a river. There were four people dead. Astonishingly, Selak managed to escape unharmed again. In 1970 he was driving along when his car suddenly caught fire. He managed to stop and get out just before the fuel tank exploded and engulfed the car in flames. . In 1973 a faulty fuel pump sprayed gas all over the engine of another of Selak’s car while he was driving it, blowing flames through the air vents. His only injury: he lost most of his hair. In 1995, Selak was in Zagreb when he was hit by a bus, again leaving nothing but a few injuries. The following year, while driving through a mountain road, when he turned a corner and saw a truck coming straight at him. He drove the car through a guardrail, jumped out, landed in a tree - and watched his car explode 300 feet below. How does the story of Frane Selak end? Luckily, of course. In June 2003, at the age of 74, Selak bought his first lottery ticket in 40 years and won more than $1 million. In 2004 Selak was hired to star in an Australian TV commercial for Doritos. At first he accepted the job, but then changed his mind and refused to fly to Sydney for the filming. Reason: He said he didn’t want to test his luck.

Frane Selak (born in 1929) is often considered the world’s (un)luckiest man. Luck has always been on his side or vice versa for Croatian music teacher who is well known around the world for as many fatal accidents as spectacular escapes. The first of his numerous near-death experiences began on a cold January day in 1962, when Selak was on a train from Sarajevo to Dubrovnik, it suddenly derailed into an icy river, killing 17 passengers. Selak managed to swim back to shore, suffering hypothermia, shock, bruises, and a broken arm. One year later, Selak was on a plane traveling from Zagreb to Rijeka when a door blew off the plane and he was sucked out of the aircraft. A few minutes later the plane crashed; 19 people were killed. But Selak woke up in a hospital - he’d been found in a haystack and had only minor injuries. It was in 1966 that he met with the third misadventure while traveling on a bus that crashed and plunged into a river. There were four people dead. Astonishingly, Selak managed to escape unharmed again. In 1970 he was driving along when his car suddenly caught fire. He managed to stop and get out just before the fuel tank exploded and engulfed the car in flames. . In 1973 a faulty fuel pump sprayed gas all over the engine of another of Selak’s car while he was driving it, blowing flames through the air vents. His only injury: he lost most of his hair. In 1995, Selak was in Zagreb when he was hit by a bus, again leaving nothing but a few injuries. The following year, while driving through a mountain road, when he turned a corner and saw a truck coming straight at him. He drove the car through a guardrail, jumped out, landed in a tree - and watched his car explode 300 feet below. How does the story of Frane Selak end? Luckily, of course. In June 2003, at the age of 74, Selak bought his first lottery ticket in 40 years and won more than $1 million. In 2004 Selak was hired to star in an Australian TV commercial for Doritos. At first he accepted the job, but then changed his mind and refused to fly to Sydney for the filming. Reason: He said he didn’t want to test his luck.

February222013
Mill Ends Park is a tiny urban park located in downtown Portland, United States. The park is a small circle 0.61 m across, with a total area of 0.292 m2. It is the smallest park in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records, which first granted it this recognition in 1971.

The park was dedicated on St. Patrick’s Day, 1948, as “the only leprechaun colony west of Ireland,” according to its creator, Dick Fagan. In 1948, the site that would become Mill Ends Park was intended to be the site for a light pole. When the pole failed to appear and weeds sprouted in the opening, Fagan, a columnist for the Oregon Journal, planted flowers in the hole and named it after his column in the paper, “Mill Ends”.

Fagan told the story of the park’s origin: He looked out the window and spotted a leprechaun digging in the hole. He ran down and grabbed the leprechaun, which meant that he had earned a wish. Fagan said he wished for a park of his own; but since he had not specified the size of the park in his wish, the leprechaun gave him the hole. Over the next two decades, Fagan often featured the park and its head leprechaun, in his whimsical column. Fagan claimed to be the only person who could see the head leprechaun, Patrick O’Toole.

Fagan died of cancer in 1969, but the park lives on, cared for by others. It was named an official city park in 1976.

The small circle has featured many unusual items through the decades, including a swimming pool for butterflies—complete with diving board, a horseshoe, a fragment of the Journal building, and a miniature Ferris wheel which was delivered by a full size crane. On St. Patrick’s Day, 2001, the park was visited by a tiny leprechaun leaning against his pot of gold and children’s drawings of four-leaf clovers and leprechauns. The park continues to be the site of St. Patrick’s Day festivities. The events held here include concerts by Clan Macleay Pipe Band, picnics, and rose plantings by the Junior Rose Festival Court.

In February 2006, the park was temporarily relocated during road construction to a planter outside the World Trade Center Portland, about 24 m from its permanent location. It was returned to its home on March 16, 2007 in true St. Patrick’s Day style with the Royal Rosarians, bagpipers, and the Fagan family, including Dick’s wife Katherine, in attendance. One of Fagan’s sons, Pat Fagan, lives in Gladstone and has enjoyed sharing the park with his own son. “He loves it”, Pat Fagan said. “It’s still the largest leprechaun colony west of Ireland.”

Mill Ends Park is a tiny urban park located in downtown Portland, United States. The park is a small circle 0.61 m across, with a total area of 0.292 m2. It is the smallest park in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records, which first granted it this recognition in 1971.

The park was dedicated on St. Patrick’s Day, 1948, as “the only leprechaun colony west of Ireland,” according to its creator, Dick Fagan. In 1948, the site that would become Mill Ends Park was intended to be the site for a light pole. When the pole failed to appear and weeds sprouted in the opening, Fagan, a columnist for the Oregon Journal, planted flowers in the hole and named it after his column in the paper, “Mill Ends”.

Fagan told the story of the park’s origin: He looked out the window and spotted a leprechaun digging in the hole. He ran down and grabbed the leprechaun, which meant that he had earned a wish. Fagan said he wished for a park of his own; but since he had not specified the size of the park in his wish, the leprechaun gave him the hole. Over the next two decades, Fagan often featured the park and its head leprechaun, in his whimsical column. Fagan claimed to be the only person who could see the head leprechaun, Patrick O’Toole.

Fagan died of cancer in 1969, but the park lives on, cared for by others. It was named an official city park in 1976.

The small circle has featured many unusual items through the decades, including a swimming pool for butterflies—complete with diving board, a horseshoe, a fragment of the Journal building, and a miniature Ferris wheel which was delivered by a full size crane. On St. Patrick’s Day, 2001, the park was visited by a tiny leprechaun leaning against his pot of gold and children’s drawings of four-leaf clovers and leprechauns. The park continues to be the site of St. Patrick’s Day festivities. The events held here include concerts by Clan Macleay Pipe Band, picnics, and rose plantings by the Junior Rose Festival Court.

In February 2006, the park was temporarily relocated during road construction to a planter outside the World Trade Center Portland, about 24 m from its permanent location. It was returned to its home on March 16, 2007 in true St. Patrick’s Day style with the Royal Rosarians, bagpipers, and the Fagan family, including Dick’s wife Katherine, in attendance. One of Fagan’s sons, Pat Fagan, lives in Gladstone and has enjoyed sharing the park with his own son. “He loves it”, Pat Fagan said. “It’s still the largest leprechaun colony west of Ireland.”

December12012
With a wingspan of nearly 7 metres, Argentavis magnificens is the largest known bird to ever fly. It lived 6 million years ago in the open plains of Argentina and the Andes mountains, and it is related to modern-day vultures and storks—but with feathers the size of Samurai swords. It rivals some light aeroplanes in size, but it is believed to have flown on the wind more like a glider, soaring to speeds of 240 km/h. But with its massive flight muscles and enormous wings, the behemoth bird weighed 70 kilograms, so flapping its wings was not enough to achieve lift-off. “Birds are commonly compared with aircraft, but in reality helicopters are a better analogy,” says Sankar Chatterjee of Texas Tech University. Chatterjee and his team came to understand the bird’s flight by collaborating with a retired aeronautical engineer, inputting measurements from fossils into a computer program designed to study flight performance in helicopters. They determined that Argentavis must have run downhill into a headwind in order to become airborne, just like hang gliders, then gained elevation by circling inside columns of air known as “thermal elevators.” It would have easily hitched a ride a few kilometres up without even flapping its wings—then by just gliding to adjoining thermals, it would have been able to travel hundreds of kilometres per day. It appears that the average and maximum age reached by these creatures was fairly large – possibly some 50–100 years.

With a wingspan of nearly 7 metres, Argentavis magnificens is the largest known bird to ever fly. It lived 6 million years ago in the open plains of Argentina and the Andes mountains, and it is related to modern-day vultures and storks—but with feathers the size of Samurai swords. It rivals some light aeroplanes in size, but it is believed to have flown on the wind more like a glider, soaring to speeds of 240 km/h. But with its massive flight muscles and enormous wings, the behemoth bird weighed 70 kilograms, so flapping its wings was not enough to achieve lift-off. “Birds are commonly compared with aircraft, but in reality helicopters are a better analogy,” says Sankar Chatterjee of Texas Tech University. Chatterjee and his team came to understand the bird’s flight by collaborating with a retired aeronautical engineer, inputting measurements from fossils into a computer program designed to study flight performance in helicopters. They determined that Argentavis must have run downhill into a headwind in order to become airborne, just like hang gliders, then gained elevation by circling inside columns of air known as “thermal elevators.” It would have easily hitched a ride a few kilometres up without even flapping its wings—then by just gliding to adjoining thermals, it would have been able to travel hundreds of kilometres per day. It appears that the average and maximum age reached by these creatures was fairly large – possibly some 50–100 years.

September202012
The Euthanasia Coaster is an art concept for a steel roller coaster designed to kill its passengers. In 2010, it was designed and made into a scale model by Julijonas Urbonas, a PhD candidate at the Royal College of Art in London. Riding the coaster’s track, the rider is subjected to a series of intensive motion elements that induce various unique experiences: from euphoria to thrill, and from tunnel vision to loss of consciousness, and, eventually, death.  John Allen, who served as president of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, inspired Urbonas with his description of the ideal roller coaster as one that “sends out 24 people and they all come back dead”. 

The design starts with a steep-angled lift to the 510-metre top, which would take two minutes for the 24-passenger train to reach. From there, a 500-metre drop would take the train to 360 kilometres per hour, close to its terminal velocity, before flattening out and speeding into the first of its seven slightly clothoid inversions. Each inversion would have a smaller diameter than the one before in order to maintain 10 g (g-force) to passengers while the train loses speed. After a sharp right-hand turn the train would enter a straight, where unloading of bodies and loading of passengers could take place.

The Euthanasia Coaster would kill its passengers through prolonged cerebral hypoxia. The ride’s seven inversions would inflict 10 g on its passengers for 60 seconds – causing g-force related symptoms starting with gray out through tunnel vision to black out and eventually g-LOC (g-force induced loss of consciousness). Depending on the tolerance of an individual passenger to g-forces, the first or second inversion would cause cerebral anoxia, rendering the passengers brain dead. Subsequent inversions would serve as insurance against unintentional survival of particularly robust passengers.

The Euthanasia Coaster is an art concept for a steel roller coaster designed to kill its passengers. In 2010, it was designed and made into a scale model by Julijonas Urbonas, a PhD candidate at the Royal College of Art in London. Riding the coaster’s track, the rider is subjected to a series of intensive motion elements that induce various unique experiences: from euphoria to thrill, and from tunnel vision to loss of consciousness, and, eventually, death. John Allen, who served as president of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, inspired Urbonas with his description of the ideal roller coaster as one that “sends out 24 people and they all come back dead”.

The design starts with a steep-angled lift to the 510-metre top, which would take two minutes for the 24-passenger train to reach. From there, a 500-metre drop would take the train to 360 kilometres per hour, close to its terminal velocity, before flattening out and speeding into the first of its seven slightly clothoid inversions. Each inversion would have a smaller diameter than the one before in order to maintain 10 g (g-force) to passengers while the train loses speed. After a sharp right-hand turn the train would enter a straight, where unloading of bodies and loading of passengers could take place.

The Euthanasia Coaster would kill its passengers through prolonged cerebral hypoxia. The ride’s seven inversions would inflict 10 g on its passengers for 60 seconds – causing g-force related symptoms starting with gray out through tunnel vision to black out and eventually g-LOC (g-force induced loss of consciousness). Depending on the tolerance of an individual passenger to g-forces, the first or second inversion would cause cerebral anoxia, rendering the passengers brain dead. Subsequent inversions would serve as insurance against unintentional survival of particularly robust passengers.

6PM
Joseph William Kittinger II (born July 27, 1928) is a former command pilot and career military officer in the United States Air Force. He is most famous for holding the records for having the highest, fastest and longest skydive, from a height greater than 31 kilometres and for being the first man to make a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in a gas balloon. Serving as a fighter pilot during the Vietnam War, he was shot down and spent 11 months in a North Vietnamese prison.

On August 16, 1960, Kittinger flew thirty kilometers straight up into the sky using a pressurized, high-altitude balloon. This very nearly made him the first man in space. He made the jump from the Excelsior III at 31,300 m. Towing a small drogue parachute for initial stabilization, he fell for four minutes and 36 seconds, reaching a maximum speed of 988 km/h before opening his parachute at 5,500 m. Pressurization for his right glove malfunctioned during the ascent, and his right hand swelled up to twice its normal size. He set historical numbers for highest balloon ascent, highest parachute jump, longest drogue-fall (four minutes), and fastest speed by a human being through the atmosphere. These are still current United States Air Force records.

Mr. Kittinger free-fell for over twenty kilometers - at which point he was moving so fast that he broke the sound barrier.
He had all but left the earth’s atmosphere; the sky around him was pitch black; he could see the outlines of entire continents; and the haiku-like abstraction of his available reference points – earth, balloon, space – made it impossible to tell if he was really falling.
There’s a video

Joseph William Kittinger II (born July 27, 1928) is a former command pilot and career military officer in the United States Air Force. He is most famous for holding the records for having the highest, fastest and longest skydive, from a height greater than 31 kilometres and for being the first man to make a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in a gas balloon. Serving as a fighter pilot during the Vietnam War, he was shot down and spent 11 months in a North Vietnamese prison. On August 16, 1960, Kittinger flew thirty kilometers straight up into the sky using a pressurized, high-altitude balloon. This very nearly made him the first man in space. He made the jump from the Excelsior III at 31,300 m. Towing a small drogue parachute for initial stabilization, he fell for four minutes and 36 seconds, reaching a maximum speed of 988 km/h before opening his parachute at 5,500 m. Pressurization for his right glove malfunctioned during the ascent, and his right hand swelled up to twice its normal size. He set historical numbers for highest balloon ascent, highest parachute jump, longest drogue-fall (four minutes), and fastest speed by a human being through the atmosphere. These are still current United States Air Force records. Mr. Kittinger free-fell for over twenty kilometers - at which point he was moving so fast that he broke the sound barrier. He had all but left the earth’s atmosphere; the sky around him was pitch black; he could see the outlines of entire continents; and the haiku-like abstraction of his available reference points – earth, balloon, space – made it impossible to tell if he was really falling.

There’s a video

September182012
The Trans-Siberian Railway (Russian: Транссибирская магистраль) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world. There are branch lines to China through Mongolia and Manchuria, with service continuing to North Korea. 

In March 1890, the future Tsar Nicholas II personally inaugurated and blessed the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. Nicholas II made notes in his diary about his anticipation of travelling in the comfort of “The Tsar’s Train” across the unspoiled wilderness of Siberia. The Tsar’s Train was designed and built in St. Petersburg to serve as the main mobile office of the Tsar and his staff for travelling across Russia.

The main route of the Trans-Siberian originates in Moscow and runs 9,289 km to Vladivostok via southern Siberia and was built from 1891 to 1916. The additional Chinese Eastern Railway was constructed as the Russo-Chinese part of the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Russia with China and providing a shorter route to Vladivostok.

The Trans-Siberian line originates - as most things in Russia do - at Moscow, centre of the Russian Federation and heads east through the ‘Golden Ring’ town of Vladimir. It passes through the birthplace of writer Maxim Gorky, now renamed Nizhny Novgorod, at which point the line branches, going via either the manufacturing hub of Perm or the more colourful capital of the Tatar Republic, Kazan.

The branches meet again at the vibrant and progressive Ural city of Yekaterinburg, and the route passes within a couple of hundred miles of Kazakhstan before officially crossing into Siberia and stopping at the administrative giants of Omsk, Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk.

At approximately halfway, the mainline reaches Irkutsk and meets the stunning Lake Baikal, the largest freshwater lake in the world, curving around its beautiful southern shore and peeling away into the Buryat region to its capital Ulan Ude.

Hugging the Chinese border, the final section of line passes through the sparse and mountainous region of Eastern Siberia before rejoining civilisation again at Kharbarovsk and turning south on the home stretch to arrive at Vladivostok, a buzzing port town overlooking the immense Pacific nearly ten thousand kilometres from Moscow, or eight days of non-stop train travel in which you cross record seven time zones!

The Trans-Siberian is just one of a number of lines that run through the huge landmass of Eurasia. Another major line is the Trans-Mongolian, which follows the route described above up until Ulan Ude, at which point it breaks southward into Mongolia, passing through the Mongolian capital of Ulanbaatar before heading into China, ending up at Beijing. A third line, called the Baikal-Amur Mainline, breaks from the Trans-Siberian route a few hundred miles East of Krasnoyarsk, brushing the northern tip of Lake Baikal before plunging into the Wild Wild East of Siberia, ending up at remote Sakhalin Island, just North of Hokkaido, Japan.

The Trans-Mongolian line across the Gobi Desert to Beijing is the usual tourist route. It is the shortest and most scenic.
The classic journey from Moscow to Vladivostok is an entirely different experience. Few people travel the entire length of the line and even fewer are foreigners, so you will find yourself completely reliant on your own resources without the camaraderie of other tourists. However, it gives you an entirely authentic experience of this vast country and from Vladivostok you can take a boat to Japan. The crossing takes 36 hours.

For the first three days, whichever destination you aim for, you cross kilometre upon kilometre of apparently boundless Siberian steppe broken only by intermittent industrialized cityscapes. Whether you end up in Vladivostok or Beijing, the experience will provide you with lasting memories of an incredible journey. This is an epic trip to be undertaken purely for its own sake - for the joy of  travelling rather than the anticipation of arrival.

HIGHLIGHTS
Yekaterinburg - Obelisk marking the boundary between Europe and Asia, 1,777 km from Moscow.
Views of Lake Baikal.
Ulan-Ude - historic Siberian town.
Khabarovsk Bridge - the longest  bridge on the railway, 2,950 m across the River Amur.
Vladivostok Station – picturesque mock-17th century architecture and the last milestone of the railway.

The Trans-Siberian Railway (Russian: Транссибирская магистраль) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world. There are branch lines to China through Mongolia and Manchuria, with service continuing to North Korea.

In March 1890, the future Tsar Nicholas II personally inaugurated and blessed the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. Nicholas II made notes in his diary about his anticipation of travelling in the comfort of “The Tsar’s Train” across the unspoiled wilderness of Siberia. The Tsar’s Train was designed and built in St. Petersburg to serve as the main mobile office of the Tsar and his staff for travelling across Russia.

The main route of the Trans-Siberian originates in Moscow and runs 9,289 km to Vladivostok via southern Siberia and was built from 1891 to 1916. The additional Chinese Eastern Railway was constructed as the Russo-Chinese part of the Trans-Siberian Railway, connecting Russia with China and providing a shorter route to Vladivostok.

The Trans-Siberian line originates - as most things in Russia do - at Moscow, centre of the Russian Federation and heads east through the ‘Golden Ring’ town of Vladimir. It passes through the birthplace of writer Maxim Gorky, now renamed Nizhny Novgorod, at which point the line branches, going via either the manufacturing hub of Perm or the more colourful capital of the Tatar Republic, Kazan.

The branches meet again at the vibrant and progressive Ural city of Yekaterinburg, and the route passes within a couple of hundred miles of Kazakhstan before officially crossing into Siberia and stopping at the administrative giants of Omsk, Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk.

At approximately halfway, the mainline reaches Irkutsk and meets the stunning Lake Baikal, the largest freshwater lake in the world, curving around its beautiful southern shore and peeling away into the Buryat region to its capital Ulan Ude.

Hugging the Chinese border, the final section of line passes through the sparse and mountainous region of Eastern Siberia before rejoining civilisation again at Kharbarovsk and turning south on the home stretch to arrive at Vladivostok, a buzzing port town overlooking the immense Pacific nearly ten thousand kilometres from Moscow, or eight days of non-stop train travel in which you cross record seven time zones!

The Trans-Siberian is just one of a number of lines that run through the huge landmass of Eurasia. Another major line is the Trans-Mongolian, which follows the route described above up until Ulan Ude, at which point it breaks southward into Mongolia, passing through the Mongolian capital of Ulanbaatar before heading into China, ending up at Beijing. A third line, called the Baikal-Amur Mainline, breaks from the Trans-Siberian route a few hundred miles East of Krasnoyarsk, brushing the northern tip of Lake Baikal before plunging into the Wild Wild East of Siberia, ending up at remote Sakhalin Island, just North of Hokkaido, Japan.

The Trans-Mongolian line across the Gobi Desert to Beijing is the usual tourist route. It is the shortest and most scenic.
The classic journey from Moscow to Vladivostok is an entirely different experience. Few people travel the entire length of the line and even fewer are foreigners, so you will find yourself completely reliant on your own resources without the camaraderie of other tourists. However, it gives you an entirely authentic experience of this vast country and from Vladivostok you can take a boat to Japan. The crossing takes 36 hours.

For the first three days, whichever destination you aim for, you cross kilometre upon kilometre of apparently boundless Siberian steppe broken only by intermittent industrialized cityscapes. Whether you end up in Vladivostok or Beijing, the experience will provide you with lasting memories of an incredible journey. This is an epic trip to be undertaken purely for its own sake - for the joy of travelling rather than the anticipation of arrival.

HIGHLIGHTS
Yekaterinburg - Obelisk marking the boundary between Europe and Asia, 1,777 km from Moscow.
Views of Lake Baikal.
Ulan-Ude - historic Siberian town.
Khabarovsk Bridge - the longest bridge on the railway, 2,950 m across the River Amur.
Vladivostok Station – picturesque mock-17th century architecture and the last milestone of the railway.

September172012
Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud’s structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described.
The id, ego and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not correspond one-to-one with actual somatic structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience.
The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud’s thought: the “structural model” was first discussed in his 1920 essay “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” and was formalised and elaborated upon three years later in his “The Ego and the Id”.

Id
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.

The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant’s needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.

However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people’s hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.

Ego

The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id’s desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id’s impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification—the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.

The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id’s primary process.
The super-ego’s demands often oppose the id’s, so the ego sometimes has a hard time in reconciling the two. To overcome this the ego employs defense mechanisms. The defense mechanisms are not done so directly or consciously. They lessen the tension by covering up our impulses that are threatening. Ego defense mechanisms are often used by the ego when id behavior conflicts with reality and either society’s morals, norms, and taboos or the individual’s expectations as a result of the internalization of these morals, norms, and their taboos.
Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms Freud identified. However, his daughter Anna Freud clarified and identified the concepts of undoing, suppression, dissociation, idealization, identification, introjection, inversion, somatisation, splitting, and substitution.

Super-ego
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society—our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.

There are two parts of the superego:

The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.

The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.

Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud’s structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described.
The id, ego and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not correspond one-to-one with actual somatic structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience.
The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud’s thought: the “structural model” was first discussed in his 1920 essay “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” and was formalised and elaborated upon three years later in his “The Ego and the Id”.

Id
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.

The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant’s needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.

However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people’s hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.

Ego

The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id’s desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id’s impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification—the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.

The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id’s primary process.
The super-ego’s demands often oppose the id’s, so the ego sometimes has a hard time in reconciling the two. To overcome this the ego employs defense mechanisms. The defense mechanisms are not done so directly or consciously. They lessen the tension by covering up our impulses that are threatening. Ego defense mechanisms are often used by the ego when id behavior conflicts with reality and either society’s morals, norms, and taboos or the individual’s expectations as a result of the internalization of these morals, norms, and their taboos.
Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms Freud identified. However, his daughter Anna Freud clarified and identified the concepts of undoing, suppression, dissociation, idealization, identification, introjection, inversion, somatisation, splitting, and substitution.


Super-ego
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society—our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.

There are two parts of the superego:

The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.

The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.

September152012
The Cuban missile crisis—known as the Caribbean crisis (Russian: Kарибский кризис) in the USSR—was a 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other; the crisis occurred in October 1962, during the Cold War. In August 1962, after some unsuccessful operations by the US to overthrow the Cuban regime, the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles with the ability to strike most of the continental United States. This action followed the deployment of Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles to Italy and Turkey in 1961 – more than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. On October 14, 1962, a United States Air Force U-2 plane on a photoreconnaissance mission captured photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba.
This crisis was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War and it is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict or WWIII, where it is estimated that 100 million Americans and 100 million Russians would have perished. The United States armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever and Soviet field commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield nuclear weapons to defend the island if it was invaded. 
The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a “quarantine” for legal and other reasons. The US announced that it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed in Cuba and remove all offensive weapons. The Kennedy administration held only a slim hope that the Kremlin would agree to their demands, and expected a military confrontation. On the Soviet side, Premier Nikita Khrushchev wrote in a letter to Kennedy that his blockade of “navigation in international waters and air space” constituted “an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war”.
The Soviets publicly balked at the US demands, but in secret back-channel communications initiated a proposal to resolve the crisis. .The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962, when President John F. Kennedy and United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached a public and secret agreement with Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter IRBMs deployed in Turkey and Italy.
Only two weeks after the agreement, the Soviets had removed the missile systems and their support equipment, loading them onto eight Soviet ships from November 5–9. A month later, on December 5 and 6, the Soviet Il-28 bombers were loaded onto three Soviet ships and shipped back to Russia. The blockade was formally ended on November 20, 1962. Eleven months after the agreement, all American weapons were deactivated. An additional outcome of the negotiations was the creation of the Hotline Agreement and the Moscow–Washington hotline, a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D.C.

The Cuban missile crisis—known as the Caribbean crisis (Russian: Kарибский кризис) in the USSR—was a 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other; the crisis occurred in October 1962, during the Cold War. In August 1962, after some unsuccessful operations by the US to overthrow the Cuban regime, the Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles with the ability to strike most of the continental United States. This action followed the deployment of Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles to Italy and Turkey in 1961 – more than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads. On October 14, 1962, a United States Air Force U-2 plane on a photoreconnaissance mission captured photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba.
This crisis was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War and it is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict or WWIII, where it is estimated that 100 million Americans and 100 million Russians would have perished. The United States armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever and Soviet field commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield nuclear weapons to defend the island if it was invaded.
The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea, but decided on a military blockade instead, calling it a “quarantine” for legal and other reasons. The US announced that it would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed in Cuba and remove all offensive weapons. The Kennedy administration held only a slim hope that the Kremlin would agree to their demands, and expected a military confrontation. On the Soviet side, Premier Nikita Khrushchev wrote in a letter to Kennedy that his blockade of “navigation in international waters and air space” constituted “an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war”.
The Soviets publicly balked at the US demands, but in secret back-channel communications initiated a proposal to resolve the crisis. .The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962, when President John F. Kennedy and United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached a public and secret agreement with Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement never to invade Cuba. Secretly, the US agreed that it would dismantle all US-built Jupiter IRBMs deployed in Turkey and Italy.
Only two weeks after the agreement, the Soviets had removed the missile systems and their support equipment, loading them onto eight Soviet ships from November 5–9. A month later, on December 5 and 6, the Soviet Il-28 bombers were loaded onto three Soviet ships and shipped back to Russia. The blockade was formally ended on November 20, 1962. Eleven months after the agreement, all American weapons were deactivated. An additional outcome of the negotiations was the creation of the Hotline Agreement and the Moscow–Washington hotline, a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D.C.

11AM
Organ²/ASLSP (As SLow aS Possible) is a musical piece composed by John Cage and is the subject of one of the longest-lasting musical performances yet undertaken. It was originally written in 1987 for organ.
The current organ performance of the piece at St. Burchardi church in Halberstadt, Germany, began in 2001 and is scheduled to have a duration of 639 years.
The score consists of eight pages, the tempo of which has been stretched to fit the wanted duration of 639 years.
The actual performance commenced in the St. Burchardi church on September 5, 2001 with a pause lasting until February 5, 2003. The first chord was played from then until July 5, 2005. The most recent new chord from the organ was a three-note chord, A above middle C, C above middle C and the F# above that (A4-C5-F#5), which began on January 5, 2006 and concluded on July 5, 2008.
The latest musical event from the organ is a new chord (C4-A flat4). On July 5, 2008, the weights holding down the organ pedals were shifted resulting in the 6th chord change. Two more organ pipes were added alongside the four installed and the tone became more complex at 15:33 local time. A machine, called a bellows, provides a constant supply of air which keeps the pipes playing.

Next date for changing notes is October 5, 2013.

The performance is planned to continue until September 5, 2640.

Organ²/ASLSP (As SLow aS Possible) is a musical piece composed by John Cage and is the subject of one of the longest-lasting musical performances yet undertaken. It was originally written in 1987 for organ.
The current organ performance of the piece at St. Burchardi church in Halberstadt, Germany, began in 2001 and is scheduled to have a duration of 639 years.
The score consists of eight pages, the tempo of which has been stretched to fit the wanted duration of 639 years.
The actual performance commenced in the St. Burchardi church on September 5, 2001 with a pause lasting until February 5, 2003. The first chord was played from then until July 5, 2005. The most recent new chord from the organ was a three-note chord, A above middle C, C above middle C and the F# above that (A4-C5-F#5), which began on January 5, 2006 and concluded on July 5, 2008.
The latest musical event from the organ is a new chord (C4-A flat4). On July 5, 2008, the weights holding down the organ pedals were shifted resulting in the 6th chord change. Two more organ pipes were added alongside the four installed and the tone became more complex at 15:33 local time. A machine, called a bellows, provides a constant supply of air which keeps the pipes playing.

Next date for changing notes is October 5, 2013.

The performance is planned to continue until September 5, 2640.

September142012
Azkaban is the wizarding prison located on an island in the middle of the North Sea that serves the magical community of Great Britain. Using certain Charms, the prison is hidden from the muggle world, and is unplottable. It is thought to have undetectable extension charms placed on it to make it bigger on the inside, as the prison seems to serve the whole of wizarding Britain. It is known that there are other wizarding prisons elsewhere, such as Nurmengard.
Azkaban gained a reputation as a horrible place, mostly due to the prison’s guards: Dementors, foul creatures that suck the happiness out of the victim and cause great suffering to those in their proximity. Because of this, most of the prisoners eventually went insane and slowly died under the Dementors’ influence. Since 1717, using any of the three Unforgivable Curses on another human being has carried a punishment of a life sentence in Azkaban (unless there is sufficient evidence that the caster did so under the influence of the Imperius Curse, or legal exceptions made by the Ministry of Magic as in the case of Aurors in the First Wizarding War).

During Voldemort’s return to power, however, the dementors allowed the escape of a number of Death Eaters and then eventually deserted Azkaban altogether to ally themselves with Voldemort. After Voldemort’s defeat, new Minister for Magic Kingsley Shacklebolt saw to it that Dementors would no longer be involved in guarding Azkaban, which despite making the atmosphere more plesant on the island, likely prevents a number of problems as well.  Prior to the Dementors’ revolt, the only people ever to escape the prison were Barty Crouch Jr. and Sirius Black, in 1982 and 1993, respectively. Barty Crouch Jr. was smuggled out by his father, Barty Crouch Sr., and replaced by his dying mother using Polyjuice Potion, while Sirius was able to escape by changing into his Animagus form of a dog.

Azkaban is the wizarding prison located on an island in the middle of the North Sea that serves the magical community of Great Britain. Using certain Charms, the prison is hidden from the muggle world, and is unplottable. It is thought to have undetectable extension charms placed on it to make it bigger on the inside, as the prison seems to serve the whole of wizarding Britain. It is known that there are other wizarding prisons elsewhere, such as Nurmengard.
Azkaban gained a reputation as a horrible place, mostly due to the prison’s guards: Dementors, foul creatures that suck the happiness out of the victim and cause great suffering to those in their proximity. Because of this, most of the prisoners eventually went insane and slowly died under the Dementors’ influence. Since 1717, using any of the three Unforgivable Curses on another human being has carried a punishment of a life sentence in Azkaban (unless there is sufficient evidence that the caster did so under the influence of the Imperius Curse, or legal exceptions made by the Ministry of Magic as in the case of Aurors in the First Wizarding War).

During Voldemort’s return to power, however, the dementors allowed the escape of a number of Death Eaters and then eventually deserted Azkaban altogether to ally themselves with Voldemort. After Voldemort’s defeat, new Minister for Magic Kingsley Shacklebolt saw to it that Dementors would no longer be involved in guarding Azkaban, which despite making the atmosphere more plesant on the island, likely prevents a number of problems as well. Prior to the Dementors’ revolt, the only people ever to escape the prison were Barty Crouch Jr. and Sirius Black, in 1982 and 1993, respectively. Barty Crouch Jr. was smuggled out by his father, Barty Crouch Sr., and replaced by his dying mother using Polyjuice Potion, while Sirius was able to escape by changing into his Animagus form of a dog.

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